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Educational needs assessment of stigmatization towards mental illness in medical education: qualitative and quantitative approach

Meral Demirören, Yeşim Şenol, Ayşen Melek Aytuğ-Koşan, Meram Can Saka.

Cited by (1)

Abstract
Stigmatization towards mental illness is common both in society and healthcare personnel. This study aims to determine attitudes of medical students towards mental illness, the effective factors in their attitudes and to reveal their educational needs.
The mixed model consisting of qualitative and quantitative methods was used to design the study. The study group of this cross-sectional research consisted of 744 2nd year and 5th year students, 21 healthcare personnel and 10 faculty working in psychiatry clinic in Medical Schools at Ankara University and Akdeniz University. Socio-demographic information form, stigma scales (Characteristics Scale, Affective Reaction Scale, Social Distance Scale) for alcohol-substance dependence, schizophrenia and depression, focus group discussion and individual interview methods were used to collect data. Stigma scales were applied on medical students and healthcare personnel. Four focus group discussions was conducted with the 5th year students and semi-structured individual interview was made with psychiatric faculty. Students' T-Test, ANOVA, Chi-square test and regression analysis were applied for quantitative data and content analyses were conducted for focus group discussions and individual interviews.
It is observed that medical students have stigmatization tendency mostly to alcohol-substance dependence which is followed by schizophrenia and depression, respectively. "Characteristics Scale" scores of the 5th year students for alcohol-substance dependence and schizophrenia exhibit statistically less stigmatization than "Social Distance Scale" scores of the 2nd year students for depression. According to the regression analysis, variables related to stigmatization are gender (male), economic status of family (middle income), presence of mental ilness in family (not available), education period (2nd year) and having mental ilness (non available). Qualitative data indicated that "being diagnosed with mental ilness", "danger-uncertainty", "appearance", "affinity-relationship", and "belief and culture" are effective factors in attitudes of medical students towards mental ilnesss; their knowledge increase with psychiatry clerkship; however, their attitudes and behaviors do not change to a great extent.
In light of the research findings, it can be recommended that a program which aims to enable students to achieve metacognitive and behavioral skills; to approach stigmatization in the context of humanism and patient-physician relationship; continues during medical education should be used in stigmatization education.
Key words: Stigma, mental ilnesss, medical education

Key words: Key words: Stigma, mental ilnesss, medical education



Tıp eğitiminde ruhsal bozukluklara karşı damgalama eğitimi gereksiniminin değerlendirilmesi: Nitel ve nicel yaklaşım

Ozet
Ruhsal hastalıklara karşı stigmatizasyon hem genel toplum içinde hem de sağlık çalışanları arasında yaygındır. Çalışmanın amacı, tıp fakültesi öğrencilerinin ruhsal hastalıklara karşı stigmatizasyon tutumlarını ve etkileyen faktörleri belirlemek ve eğitim gereksinimlerini ortaya koymaktır.
Araştırma nicel ve nitel araştırma yöntemlerinin birlikte kullanıldığı karma model ile tasarlanmıştır. Kesitsel nitelikteki araştırma, Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi ve Akdeniz Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültelerinde 744 ikinci ve beşinci sınıf öğrencisi, 21 sağlık çalışanı ve 10 öğretim üyesi ile yürütülmüştür. Veriler, sosyo-demografik bilgi formu, alkol-madde bağımlılığı, şizofreni ve depresyon için stigma ölçekleri (Karakteristikler Ölçeği, Duygusal Tepki Ölçeği, Sosyal Mesafe Ölçeği), odak grup görüşmesi ve bireysel görüşme yöntemleri ile toplanmıştır. Stigma ölçekleri öğrenciler ve sağlık çalışanlarına uygulanmıştır. Beşinci sınıf öğrencileri ile dört odak grup görüşmesi, öğretim üyeleri ile yarı yapılandırılmış bireysel görüşme yapılmıştır. Nicel veriler için Student’s T Testi, ANOVA, Ki-Kare testi ve regresyon analizi uygulanmış, odak grup görüşmeleri ve bireysel görüşmeler için içerik analizi yapılmıştır.
Tıp öğrencileri en fazla alkol-madde bağımlığına karşı stigmatizasyon eğilimi gösterirken, bunu sırasıyla şizofreni ve depresyon izlemektedir. 5.Sınıf öğrencileri sadece alkol-madde bağımlılığı ve şizofreni için “Karakteristikler Ölçeği” puanlarında ve depresyon için “Sosyal Mesafe Ölçeği” puanlarında 2. sınıf öğrencilerine göre anlamlı olarak daha az stigmatizasyon göstermektedir. Regresyon analizine göre stigmatizasyon ile ilişkili bulunan değişkenler, cinsiyet (erkek), ailenin ekonomik durumu (orta düzey), ailede ruhsal hastalık varlığı (var olmaması), eğitim dönemi (2. sınıf) ve kendinde ruhsal hastalık varlığıdır (var olmama). Nitel veriler, tıp öğrencilerinin ruhsal hastalıklara karşı tutumlarında “ruhsal hastalık tanısı alma”, “tehlikeli olma-bilinmezlik”, “görünüm”, “yakınlık-akrabalık” ve “inanç ve kültür”ün etkili olduğunu; psikiyatri stajı ile bilgilerinin arttığını, ancak tutum ve davranışlarının çok fazla değişmediğini ortaya koymuştur.
Araştırma bulgularından yola çıkılarak, stigmatizasyon eğitiminin öğrencilerde metabilişsel ve davranışsal beceriler kazandırmayı amaçlayan; stigmatizasyonu humanizm ve hasta-hekim ilişkisi bağlamında ele alan; tıp eğitimi süresince devam eden entegre bir programla uygulanması önerilebilir.

Anahtar kelimeler: Stigma, ruhsal hastalıklar, tıp eğitimi

Anahtar Kelimeler: Anahtar kelimeler: Stigma, ruhsal hastalıklar, tıp eğitimi


 
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Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2016; 51(9): 1265.

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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Demiroren M, Senol Y, Aytug-Kosan AM, Saka MC. [Educational needs assessment of stigmatization towards mental illness in medical education: qualitative and quantitative approach]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(1): 22-29. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.45731


Web Style

Demiroren M, Senol Y, Aytug-Kosan AM, Saka MC. [Educational needs assessment of stigmatization towards mental illness in medical education: qualitative and quantitative approach]. http://www.anadolupsikiyatri.net/?mno=45731 [Access: September 21, 2018]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.45731


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Demiroren M, Senol Y, Aytug-Kosan AM, Saka MC. [Educational needs assessment of stigmatization towards mental illness in medical education: qualitative and quantitative approach]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(1): 22-29. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.45731



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Demiroren M, Senol Y, Aytug-Kosan AM, Saka MC. [Educational needs assessment of stigmatization towards mental illness in medical education: qualitative and quantitative approach]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. (2015), [cited September 21, 2018]; 16(1): 22-29. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.45731



Harvard Style

Demiroren, M., Senol, Y., Aytug-Kosan, A. M. & Saka, M. C. (2015) [Educational needs assessment of stigmatization towards mental illness in medical education: qualitative and quantitative approach]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg, 16 (1), 22-29. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.45731



Turabian Style

Demiroren, Meral, Yesim Senol, Aysen Melek Aytug-Kosan, and Meram Can Saka. 2015. [Educational needs assessment of stigmatization towards mental illness in medical education: qualitative and quantitative approach]. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 16 (1), 22-29. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.45731



Chicago Style

Demiroren, Meral, Yesim Senol, Aysen Melek Aytug-Kosan, and Meram Can Saka. "[Educational needs assessment of stigmatization towards mental illness in medical education: qualitative and quantitative approach]." Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 16 (2015), 22-29. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.45731



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Demiroren, Meral, Yesim Senol, Aysen Melek Aytug-Kosan, and Meram Can Saka. "[Educational needs assessment of stigmatization towards mental illness in medical education: qualitative and quantitative approach]." Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 16.1 (2015), 22-29. Print.Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.45731



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Demiroren, M., Senol, Y., Aytug-Kosan, A. M. & Saka, M. C. (2015) [Educational needs assessment of stigmatization towards mental illness in medical education: qualitative and quantitative approach]. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 16 (1), 22-29. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.45731





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