ISSN 1302-6631
 

Original Research (Original Article) 


Investigating the relationships between alexithymia characteristics, meta-cognitive features and mental problems in high school students in İstanbul

Gizem Uzal, Mesut Yavuz, Burak Akdeniz, Selda Çallı, Nurullah Bolat.

Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the relationships between alexithymic personality traits and meta-cognitive problems, and psychological and behavioral problems associated with alexithymia in adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 570 high school students (58% female, n=331; 42% male, n=239) in five high schools in İstanbul. Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Meta-Cognition Questionnaire for Children and Adolescent (MCQ-C) and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used. The parents were asked to complete Socio-demographic Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 24 program and statistical significance level was set at p<0.05 and p<0.001. Results: There was no significant difference in terms of age between the alexithymia group (58% female, n=63; 42% male, n=46) and the comparison group (58% female, n=268; 42% male, n=193). Also, there was no significant relationship between gender and alexithymia. Negative meta-worry, supersti-tion beliefs, punishment and responsibility beliefs and total meta-cognitive problem scores of the alexithymia group were significantly higher than comparison group. SDQ total problem scores, attention deficit and hyperactivity scores, peer problems, conduct and emotional problem scores were significantly higher; pro-social behavior scores were significantly lower in the alexithymia group compared to the comparison group. Total TAS-20 scores were positively correlated with total MCQ-C scores and total SDQ scores, significantly. Additionally, total scores of the MCQ-C and SDQ significantly predict the alexithymia. Conclusion: Meta-cognition abilities have functions in checking and regulating the emotions as well as regulating the cognitive processes. It should be kept in mind that the core feature of the individuals with alexithymia is the lack of identifying and expressing emotions, therefore it may be suggested that meta-cognitive problems increase the risk of alexithymia. In addition, the results indicated that alexithymia is frequently associated with attention deficit and hyperactivity, emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents. These results indicate that focusing on meta-cognitive errors may increase the effectiveness of treatment of the adolescents with alexithymia. Additionally, mental and behavioral problems accompanying the alexithymia should not be overlooked.

Key words: Alexithymia, meta-cognition, behavior, emotion



İstanbul ilinde öğrenim gören lise öğrencilerinde aleksitimi karakter özellikleri ile üst biliş özellikleri ve ruhsal sorunlar arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi

Ozet
Amaç: Ergen yaş grubunda aleksitimi karakter özelliğine sahip olma durumları ile üst biliş sorunları arasındaki ilişki-yi incelemek ve de aleksitimiye eşlik eden ruhsal ve davranışsal sorunları belirlemektir. Yöntem: Kesitsel nitelikteki bu araştırma İstanbul’da beş liseden 570 ergenle (%58 kız, s=331; %42 erkek, s=239) yapılmıştır. Katılımcılara Toronto Aleksitimi Ölçeği 20 Soruluk Formu (TAÖ-20), Üst Biliş Ölçeği Çocuk ve Ergen Formu (ÜBÖ-ÇE) ile Güçler ve Güçlükler Anketi (GGA) uygulanmıştır. Ailelerden sosyodemografik bilgi formunu doldurmaları istenmiştir. İstatis-tiksel analizler SPSS 24 programı ile yapılmış ve anlamlılık değeri p<0.05 ve p<0.001 olarak kabul edilmiştir. Bulgu-lar: Aleksitimi grubu (%58 kız, s=63; %42 erkek, s=46) ile karşılaştırma grubu (%58 kız, s=268; %42 erkek, s=193) arasında yaş açısından anlamlı bir fark bulunmamıştır. Cinsiyet ve aleksitimi arasında anlamlı bir ilişki olmadığı görülmüştür. Aleksitimi grubunun ÜBÖ-ÇE olumsuz üst endişeler, batıl inanç, ceza ve sorumluluk inançları ve üst biliş toplam sorun puanları, karşılaştırma grubuna göre anlamlı derecede yüksek bulunmuştur. Aleksitimi grubunun GGA toplam sorun puanları, dikkat eksikliği ve aşırı hareketlilik puanları, akran, davranış ve duygusal sorun puanları yaşıtlarına göre anlamlı derecede yüksek; olumlu özelliği ölçen sosyal davranış puanları ise anlamlı derecede düşük bulunmuştur. TAÖ-20 ile ÜBÖ-ÇE ve GGA toplam puanları arasında anlamlı korelasyon saptanmıştır. Ek olarak, ÜBÖ-ÇE ve GGA toplam sorun puanlarının aleksitimiyi anlamlı olarak yordadığı gözlenmiştir. Sonuç: Üst bilişin, bilişsel süreçleri düzenlemenin yanı sıra, duyguları değerlendirme ve düzenleme işlevi de vardır. Aleksitimi karakter özelliğine sahip bireylerin ana sorunu duyguları tanıma ve ifade etme zorluğu olduğundan, üst biliş sorunlarının aleksitimi riskini artırdığı düşünülebilir. Ek olarak aleksitimi ergenlerde, dikkat eksikliği ve hareketlilik, duygusal ve davranışsal sorunlar ile sık birliktelik göstermektedir. Bu sonuçlar aleksitimi karakter özelliğine sahip ergenlerin üst bilişsel hatalarının ele alınmasının tedavi etkinliğini artırabileceğini, ek olarak eşlik eden ruhsal ve davranışsal sorunların gözden kaçırılmaması gerektiğini göstermektedir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Aleksitimi, üst biliş, davranış, emosyon


 
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Pubmed Style

Uzal G, Yavuz M, Akdeniz B, Calli S, Bolat N. [Investigating the relationships between alexithymia characteristics, meta-cognitive features and mental problems in high school students in İstanbul]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2018; 19(5): 478-484. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289804


Web Style

Uzal G, Yavuz M, Akdeniz B, Calli S, Bolat N. [Investigating the relationships between alexithymia characteristics, meta-cognitive features and mental problems in high school students in İstanbul]. http://www.anadolupsikiyatri.net/?mno=289804 [Access: September 21, 2018]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289804


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Uzal G, Yavuz M, Akdeniz B, Calli S, Bolat N. [Investigating the relationships between alexithymia characteristics, meta-cognitive features and mental problems in high school students in İstanbul]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2018; 19(5): 478-484. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289804



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Uzal G, Yavuz M, Akdeniz B, Calli S, Bolat N. [Investigating the relationships between alexithymia characteristics, meta-cognitive features and mental problems in high school students in İstanbul]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. (2018), [cited September 21, 2018]; 19(5): 478-484. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289804



Harvard Style

Uzal, G., Yavuz, M., Akdeniz, B., Calli, S. & Bolat, N. (2018) [Investigating the relationships between alexithymia characteristics, meta-cognitive features and mental problems in high school students in İstanbul]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg, 19 (5), 478-484. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289804



Turabian Style

Uzal, Gizem, Mesut Yavuz, Burak Akdeniz, Selda Calli, and Nurullah Bolat. 2018. [Investigating the relationships between alexithymia characteristics, meta-cognitive features and mental problems in high school students in İstanbul]. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 19 (5), 478-484. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289804



Chicago Style

Uzal, Gizem, Mesut Yavuz, Burak Akdeniz, Selda Calli, and Nurullah Bolat. "[Investigating the relationships between alexithymia characteristics, meta-cognitive features and mental problems in high school students in İstanbul]." Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 19 (2018), 478-484. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289804



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Uzal, Gizem, Mesut Yavuz, Burak Akdeniz, Selda Calli, and Nurullah Bolat. "[Investigating the relationships between alexithymia characteristics, meta-cognitive features and mental problems in high school students in İstanbul]." Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 19.5 (2018), 478-484. Print.Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289804



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Uzal, G., Yavuz, M., Akdeniz, B., Calli, S. & Bolat, N. (2018) [Investigating the relationships between alexithymia characteristics, meta-cognitive features and mental problems in high school students in İstanbul]. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 19 (5), 478-484. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.289804





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