ISSN 1302-6631
 

Original Research (Original Article) 


Regional drug abuse prevalence depending on laboratory based urine illicit drug screening results

Çiğdem Karakükcü, Mehmet Zahit Çıracı, Derya Koçer, Gözde Ertürk Zararsız, Mustafa Reyhancan, İsmail Altıntop.

Abstract
Objectives: To determine the laboratory based drug abuse prevalence of persons who have illicit and/or addictive substance test requests instead of alcohol in a city in Middle Anatolia in Turkey. Methods: Laboratory information system’s data of urine samples, submitted to Biochemistry Laboratory from various clinics, between January 2014 and June 2016 were retrospectively investigated. In comprehension of illicit drug use amphetamin, cannabis, opiate, cocaine and benzodiazepin group tests were screened with Cloned Enzyme Donor Immunoassay method. Positivity-negativity rates according to years, age-gender distribution and number of multiple substance usage were investigated. Results: Totally 79873 illicit drugs were screened in 19763 urine samples. 18080 males (% 91.5) and 1683 females (%8.5), with a mean age of 30.7±10.8 years (range: 4-86) and 27.2±10.5 years (range: 1-86) respectively were included. The average positivity rate according to the sample size in last 2.5 years was 23%; 19% in 2014, 23% in 2015, and 27% in 2016. The positivity rates according to number of analyzed tests were 5.9%, 6.7% and 7.5% respectively. In 2014 the maximum positivity rate was in benzodiazepine (12.5%) and secondly in cannabinoids (11.9%). Whereas amphetamine were the most common drug used (16.3%) with a 4.17 fold increase in 2015 compared to 2014. The increase in amphetamine group substance positivity continued in the first half of 2016 compared to previous year. The most common and the second most common multiple substance usage were amphetamine+ cannabis and amphetamine+opiate respectively. Conclusion: According to laboratory information of illicit drug screening results in urine, drug abuse is increasing through years. Amphetamine group is the most common used substance in the last two years in this region. This is the first study contributing to the prevalence of substance use in a city of Middle Anatolia in Turkey with a large sample volume and patient population.

Key words: illicit drug, CEDIA, amphetamine, cannabis



Laboratuvar verilerine dayalı idrarda yasa dışı madde analiz sonuçlarına göre bölgesel madde kullanım yaygınlığının belirlenmesi

Özet
Amaç: Türkiye’de bir İç Anadolu Bölgesi şehrinde, alkol dışındaki yasa dışı ve/veya bağımlılık yapıcı madde saptanması için test istemi yapılan kişilerin laboratuvar analizlerine dayalı madde kullanımı yaygınlığının ve yaş-cinsiyet dağılımının belirlenmesi amaçlandı. Yöntem: Ocak 2014-Haziran 2016 yılları arasında madde analizi yapılan idrar örneklerine ait laboratuvar bilgi sistemi verileri geriye dönük olarak değerlendirildi. Madde analizi kapsamında amfetamin, kannabis, opiyat, kokain ve benzodiyazepin grubu testler Cloned Enzyme Donor Immunoassay yöntemi ile çalışıldı. Yıllara göre pozitiflik-negatiflik oranları, yaş-cinsiyet dağılımları ve çoklu madde kullanım sayıları incelendi. Bulgular: Toplam 19763 idrar örneğinde, 79873 yasa dışı madde analizi yapıldı. 18080’i (%91.5) erkek, yaş ortalaması 30.7±10.8 yıl (aralık: 4-86); 1683’ü (%8.5) kadın, yaş ortalaması 27.2±10.5 (aralık: 1-86) yıl idi. Son 2.5 yılda analizi yapılan toplam numune sayısına göre pozitiflik oranı ortalaması %23; 2014 yılında pozitiflik oranı %19, 2015 yılında %23, 2016 yılında %27 olarak bulundu. Analizi yapılan test sayısına göre pozitiflik oranı ise yıllara göre sırasıyla %5.9, %6.7 ve %7.5 idi. En fazla pozitiflik oranı 2014 yılında ilk sırada benzodiyazepin (%12.5) ve ikinci sırada kannabinoid (%11.9) grubunda iken; 2015 yılında 2014 yılına göre 4.17 kat artışla amfetamin grubu (%16.3) ilk sırayı aldı. Amfetamin grubu madde kullanımındaki anlamlı artış 2016 yılı ilk yarısında da sürdü. Çoklu madde kullanımında da en sık 'amfetamin+kannabis', ikinci sıklıkta 'amfetamin+opiyat' grubunun olduğu saptandı. Sonuç: Laboratuvar verilerine dayalı idrarda yasa dışı madde analizi sonuçlarına göre, yasa dışı madde kulanım oranı yıllar içerisinde giderek artış göstermektedir. Amfetamin grubu madde kullanımı son yıllarda bölgemizde en sık kullanılan bağımlılık yapıcı maddedir ve kannabis kullanımının önüne geçmiştir. Geniş örneklem hacmi ve her türlü amaçla yapılmış laboratuvar analiz verilerinin kullanıldığı bu çalışma, bir İç Anadolu Bölgesi şehrinde madde kullanım yaygınlığını gösteren ilk çalışmadır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: yasadışı madde, CEDIA, amfetamin, kannabis


 
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Pubmed Style

Karakukcu C, Ciraci MZ, Kocer D, Zararsiz GE, Reyhancan M, Altintop I. [Regional drug abuse prevalence depending on laboratory based urine illicit drug screening results]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2018; 19(2): 169-176. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.264474


Web Style

Karakukcu C, Ciraci MZ, Kocer D, Zararsiz GE, Reyhancan M, Altintop I. [Regional drug abuse prevalence depending on laboratory based urine illicit drug screening results]. http://www.anadolupsikiyatri.net/?mno=264474 [Access: April 26, 2018]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.264474


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Karakukcu C, Ciraci MZ, Kocer D, Zararsiz GE, Reyhancan M, Altintop I. [Regional drug abuse prevalence depending on laboratory based urine illicit drug screening results]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2018; 19(2): 169-176. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.264474



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Karakukcu C, Ciraci MZ, Kocer D, Zararsiz GE, Reyhancan M, Altintop I. [Regional drug abuse prevalence depending on laboratory based urine illicit drug screening results]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. (2018), [cited April 26, 2018]; 19(2): 169-176. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.264474



Harvard Style

Karakukcu, C., Ciraci, M. Z., Kocer, D., Zararsiz, G. E., Reyhancan, M. & Altintop, I. (2018) [Regional drug abuse prevalence depending on laboratory based urine illicit drug screening results]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg, 19 (2), 169-176. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.264474



Turabian Style

Karakukcu, Cigdem, Mehmet Zahit Ciraci, Derya Kocer, Gozde Erturk Zararsiz, Mustafa Reyhancan, and Ismail Altintop. 2018. [Regional drug abuse prevalence depending on laboratory based urine illicit drug screening results]. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 19 (2), 169-176. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.264474



Chicago Style

Karakukcu, Cigdem, Mehmet Zahit Ciraci, Derya Kocer, Gozde Erturk Zararsiz, Mustafa Reyhancan, and Ismail Altintop. "[Regional drug abuse prevalence depending on laboratory based urine illicit drug screening results]." Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 19 (2018), 169-176. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.264474



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Karakukcu, Cigdem, Mehmet Zahit Ciraci, Derya Kocer, Gozde Erturk Zararsiz, Mustafa Reyhancan, and Ismail Altintop. "[Regional drug abuse prevalence depending on laboratory based urine illicit drug screening results]." Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 19.2 (2018), 169-176. Print.Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.264474



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Karakukcu, C., Ciraci, M. Z., Kocer, D., Zararsiz, G. E., Reyhancan, M. & Altintop, I. (2018) [Regional drug abuse prevalence depending on laboratory based urine illicit drug screening results]. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 19 (2), 169-176. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.264474





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