ISSN 1302-6631
 

Original Research (Original Article) Open Access


The Vengeance Scale: Turkish adaptation study

Seydi Ahmet Satıcı, Gürhan Can, Ahmet Akın.

Abstract
Objective: Vengeance, which can be defined as taking revenge by displaying a desire or behavior of revenge for a pain of a harm on a person who has done the harm, is a primitive, destructive and illogical personality trait accompanying many of the personality traits. The aim of the study is to adapt the Vengeance Scale (VS) to Turkish, which was developed to measure the traits of individuals who assume that they have been humiliated in such a situation and tend to desires or behaviors of taking revenge. Methods: This research is composed of the findings of two separate studies. The first study was performed with 332 participants (157 female and 175 male) attending Sakarya University. The second study consisted of 335 participants (199 female and 156 male) attending Anadolu University. In the first study, language equivalency, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and reliability of the scale were investigated. In the second study, criterion-related validity and gender-related discriminant validity of the scale, which was translated into Turkish, were investigated. Findings: As a result of the exploratory factor analysis, it was determined that the Turkish version of the scale explained 37% of the total variance and that it had a one-dimensional structure as in the original scale. Confirmatory factor analysis results indicate that the one-dimensional structure of the scale provides a good fit (χ2=341, χ2/df=2.23, NFI=0.95, CFI=0.97, IFI=0.97, RFI=0.94, GFI=0.91, RMSEA=0.061, SRMR=0.050). It was also determined that the Cronbach's alpha internal consistency coefficient of the scale was 0.91, while test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.87. It was determined that there were negative correlations between VS and forgiveness within the scope of criterion-related validity, whereas there were positive correlations between VS and anger rumination. Moreover, males (68.61±23.36) were found to have significantly (t(353)=2.37, p<0.05) higher VS scores than females (63.14±20.12). Conclusion: The results obtained from this study indicate that psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Vengeance Scale are adequate. As a result, it was concluded that the Vengeance Scale is a scale to measure in a valid and reliable way the individuals’ level of vengeance against any injustice they have.

Key words: vengeance, scale adaptation, validity, reliability, university students



İntikam Ölçeği: Türkçeye uyarlama çalışması

Özet
Amaç: Bireyin kendisine yapılan bir kötülüğün acısını kötülük yapandan öç almak için çıkarmak arzusu olarak tanımlanabilecek olan intikam duygusu, bazı kişilik bozukluklarına eşlik eden ilkel, yıkıcı ve mantık dışı bir kişilik özelliğidir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, böyle bir durum karşısında kendini aşağılanmış biri olarak algılayarak öç alma arzusu ve davranışlarına yönelen bireylerin bu özelliklerini ölçmek amacıyla geliştirilen İntikam Ölçeğini (İÖ) Türkçeye uyarlamaktır. Yöntem: Bu araştırma, iki ayrı çalışmadan oluşmaktadır. Birinci çalışma, Sakarya Üniversitesine devam eden 332 katılımcı (157 kadın, 175 erkek) ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. İkinci çalışma ise, Anadolu Üniversitesine devam eden 335 katılımcıyı (199 kadın, 156 erkek) içermiştir. Birinci çalışmada ölçeğin Türkçe formunun özgün ölçekle olan dilsel eşdeğerliliği, yapı geçerliliğini incelemeye yönelik açımlayıcı ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizleri ve güvenilirliği araştırılmıştır. İkinci çalışmada ise, Türkçeye çevrilen ölçeğin ölçüt bağıntılı geçerliliği ve cinsiyete ilişkin ayırt edici geçerliği araştırılmıştır. Bulgular: Açımlayıcı faktör analizi sonucunda ölçeğin Türkçe formunun toplam varyansın %37’sini açıkladığı ve özgün ölçekte olduğu gibi tek boyutlu bir yapıya sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir. Doğrulayıcı faktör analizi sonuçları ise, ölçeğin elde edilen tek boyutlu yapısının iyi uyum verdiğini kanıtlamıştır (χ2=341, χ2/sd=2.23, NFI=0.95, CFI=0.97, IFI=0.97, RFI=0.94, GFI=0.91, RMSEA=0.061, SRMR=0.05). Ölçeğin Cronbach alfa iç tutarlılık katsayısının 0.91, test-tekrar test korelasyon katsayısının 0.87 olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ölçüt bağıntılı geçerlilik kapsamında İÖ ile affedicilik arasında negatif yönde, öfkeye ilişkin derin düşünme arasında pozitif yönde ilişkiler olduğu saptanmıştır. Ayrıca, erkeklerin (68.61±23.36) kadınlara (63.14±20.12) göre anlamlı biçimde daha yüksek İÖ puanlarına sahip olduğu bulunmuştur (t(353)=2.37, p<0.05). Sonuç: Bu çalışmadan elde edilen sonuçlar, İ֒nün Türkçe formunun psikometrik özelliklerinin yeterli olduğunu göstermiştir. Sonuç olarak İ֒nün bireylerin bir haksızlık karşısında yaşadıkları intikam düzeyini geçerli ve güvenilir bir biçimde ölçebilecek nitelikte bir ölçek olduğu kanısına varılmıştır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: İntikam, ölçek uyarlama, geçerlilik, güvenilirlik, üniversite öğrencileri


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Export to
Export to
Related Records
 Articles by Seydi Ahmet Satıcı
Articles by Gürhan Can
Articles by Ahmet Akın
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 1444
Downloaded: 491
Cited: 0

REFERENCES
1. McCullough ME, Bellah CG, Kilpatrick SD, Johnson JL. Vengefulness: Relationships with forgiveness, rumination, well-being, and the big five. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2001; 27:601-610. [DOI via Crossref]   
2. Cardozo BL, Kaiser R, Gotway CA, Agani F. Mental health, social functioning, and feelings of hatred and revenge of Kosovar Albanians one year after the war in Kosovo. J Trauma Stress 2003; 16(4):351-360. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
3. Ysseldyk R, Matheson K, Anisman H. Rumination: Bridging a gap between forgivingness, vengefulness, and psychological health. Pers Indiv Differ 2007; 42(8):1573-1584. [DOI via Crossref]   
4. Martin LL, Tesser A. Toward a motivational and structural theory of ruminative thought. JS Uleman, JA Bargh (Ed.), Unintended Thought, New York: The Guilford Press, 1989, p.306-326.
5. Watkins ER. Constructive and unconstructive repetitive thought. Psychol Bull 2008; 134:163-206. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
6. Staub E, Pearlman LA, Gubin A, Hagengimana A. Healing, reconciliation, forgiving and the prevention of violence after genocide or mass killing: An intervention and its experimental evaluation in Rwanda. J Soc Clin Psychol 2005; 24:297-334. [DOI via Crossref]   
7. Kaufman WRP. Honor and Revenge: A Theory of Punishment. New York: Springer, 2013. [DOI via Crossref]   
8. Johnson JL, Butzen ND. Psychoticism as a predictor of vengefulness, forgiveness and religious commitment. J Psychol Christ 2008; 27(4):329- 336.
9. Bellah CG, Bellah LD, Johnson JL. A look at dispositional vengefulness from the three and fivefactor models of personality. Individ Differ Res 2003; 1(1):6-16.
10. Eysenck HJ. A reply to Costa and McCrae. P or A and C-the role of theory. Pers Indiv Differ 1992; 13(8):867-868. [DOI via Crossref]   
11. Costa PT, McCrae RR. Four ways five factors are basic. Pers Indiv Differ 1992; 13(6):653-665. [DOI via Crossref]   
12. Ruggi S, Gilli G, Stuckless N, Oasi O. Assessing vindictiveness: Psychological aspects by a reliability and validity study of the Vengeance Scale in the Italian context. Curr Psychol 2012; 31(4):365- 380. [DOI via Crossref]   
13. Stuckless N, Goranson R. The vengeance scale: Development of a measure of attitudes toward revenge. J Soc Behav Pers 1992; 7:25-42.
14. Brislin RW. Translation and content analysis of oral and written material. HC Triandis, JW Berry (Eds.), Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1980, p.389-444.
15. Hu LT, Bentler PM. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Modeling 1999; 6(1):1-55. [DOI via Crossref]   
16. Berry JW, Worthington EL, Jr O'Connor LE, Parrott L, Wade NG. Forgivingness, vengeful rumination, and affective traits. J Pers 2005; 73(1):183-225. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
17. Akýn A, Akýn U, Gediksiz E. The validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Forgivingness Scale. Paper presented at the International Counseling and Education Conference, 2012 May, 3-5, Istanbul, Turkey.
18. Sukhodolsky DG, Golub A, Cromwell EN. Development and validation of the Anger Rumination Scale. Pers Indiv Differ 2001; 31:689-700. [DOI via Crossref]   
19. Satýcý SA. Öfkeye Ýliþkin Derin Düþünme Ölçeði: Türkçe formunun psikometrik özellikleri. Anadolu Psikiyatr Derg 2014; 15(4):328-334.
20. Büyüköztürk Þ. Sosyal Bilimler Için Veri Analizi El Kitabý. Ankara: Pegem A Yayýncýlýk, 2006.
21. Satýcý SA, Uysal R, Akýn A. Forgiveness and vengeance: The mediating role of gratitude. Psychol Rep 2014; 114(1):157-168. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
22. Seaton CL, Beaumont SL. Exploring the links between identity styles and forgiveness in university students. Can J Behav Sci 2013; 46(3):366-374. [DOI via Crossref]   
23. Barber L, Maltby J, Macaskill A. Angry memories and thoughts of revenge: The relationship between forgiveness and anger rumination. Pers Indiv Differ 2005; 39:253-262. [DOI via Crossref]   
24. Cota-McKinley AL, Woody WD, Bell PA. Vengeance: Effects of gender, age, and religious background. Aggress Behav 2001; 27:343-350. [DOI via Crossref]   
25. Nunnally JC, Bernstein IH. Psychometric Theory. Third ed., New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Satici SA, Can G, Akin A. [The Vengeance Scale: Turkish adaptation study]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(Supplement 1): 36-43. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.170563


Web Style

Satici SA, Can G, Akin A. [The Vengeance Scale: Turkish adaptation study]. http://www.anadolupsikiyatri.net/?mno=170563 [Access: February 22, 2018]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.170563


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Satici SA, Can G, Akin A. [The Vengeance Scale: Turkish adaptation study]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(Supplement 1): 36-43. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.170563



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Satici SA, Can G, Akin A. [The Vengeance Scale: Turkish adaptation study]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. (2015), [cited February 22, 2018]; 16(Supplement 1): 36-43. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.170563



Harvard Style

Satici, S. A., Can, G. & Akin, A. (2015) [The Vengeance Scale: Turkish adaptation study]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg, 16 (Supplement 1), 36-43. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.170563



Turabian Style

Satici, Seydi Ahmet, Gurhan Can, and Ahmet Akin. 2015. [The Vengeance Scale: Turkish adaptation study]. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 16 (Supplement 1), 36-43. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.170563



Chicago Style

Satici, Seydi Ahmet, Gurhan Can, and Ahmet Akin. "[The Vengeance Scale: Turkish adaptation study]." Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 16 (2015), 36-43. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.170563



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Satici, Seydi Ahmet, Gurhan Can, and Ahmet Akin. "[The Vengeance Scale: Turkish adaptation study]." Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 16.Supplement 1 (2015), 36-43. Print.Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.170563



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Satici, S. A., Can, G. & Akin, A. (2015) [The Vengeance Scale: Turkish adaptation study]. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 16 (Supplement 1), 36-43. Turkish. doi:10.5455/apd.170563





Most Viewed Articles
  • Schizophrenia and mega cisterna magna: case report [Turkish]
    Semra Karayılan, Atila Erol
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 90-92
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36699

  • Impulsivity in patients with obesity and correlations with body perception and self-esteem [Turkish]
    G Sarısoy, A Atmaca, G Ecemiş, K Gümüş, O Pazvantoğlu
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 53-61
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.34469

  • The relationship between aggression and online video game addiction: a study on massively multiplayer online video game players [Turkish]
    H. Andaç Demirtaş Madran, Eda Ferligül Çakılcı
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(2): 99-107
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.39828

  • Reliability and validity of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale for bipolar mood disorder [Turkish]
    Güven Bahar, Haluk A. Savaş, Ahmet Ünal, Esen Savaş, Hilal Kaya, Aynur Bahar
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(2): 141-149
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.39827

  • The effects of the service of community mental health center on the patients with schizophrenia - evaluation of quality of life, disabilities, general and social functioning- a summary of one year follow-up [Turkish]
    Hülya Ensari, Bülent Kadri Gültekin, Derya Karaman, Ayşegül Koç, Ali Fuat Beşkardeş
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 108-114
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36380

  • Cases of sibling incest resulting in pregnancy [Turkish]
    Evrim Aktepe, Orhan Kocaman
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 177-180
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.35965

  • Job satisfaction and perceived job stress of the health professionals and the relationship between them [Turkish]
    Etem Erdal Erşan, Gülay Yıldırım, Orhan Doğan, Selma Doğan
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 115-121
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.34482

  • The Scale of Positive and Negative Experience: a validity and reliability study for adolescents [Turkish]
    Bülent Baki Telef
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 62-68
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36692

  • Death anxiety in elderly cases [Turkish]
    Zehra Öztürk, Gonca Karakuş, Lut Tamam
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2011; 12(1): 37-43
    » Abstract

  • Eating disorders and psychosis [Turkish]
    Vesile Altınyazar, Fulya Maner
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(1): 84-88
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.38073

  • Most Downloaded
  • Impulsivity in patients with obesity and correlations with body perception and self-esteem [Turkish]
    G Sarısoy, A Atmaca, G Ecemiş, K Gümüş, O Pazvantoğlu
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 53-61
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.34469

  • Characteristic features of perpetrators of sexual abuse on children and adolescents in four different regions of Turkey [Turkish]
    Ayten Erdoğan, Evren Tufan, Mehmet Gökşin Karaman, Mehmet Süleyman Atabek, Cem Koparan, Esra Özdemir, Anna Baranova Çetiner, Nihal Yurteri, Ülkem Öztürk, Mehmet Ali Kurçer, Handan Ankaralı
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2011; 12(1): 55-61
    » Abstract

  • Death anxiety in elderly cases [Turkish]
    Zehra Öztürk, Gonca Karakuş, Lut Tamam
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2011; 12(1): 37-43
    » Abstract

  • Investigation of mindfulness and affecting factors of mindfulness among substance users and non users [Turkish]
    Kültegin Ögel, Nuray Sarp, Defne Tamar Gürol, Eda Ermağan
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(4): 282-288
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.169583

  • The influence of temperament and character dimensions on marital satisfaction [Turkish]
    Makbule Kansız, Haluk Arkar
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2011; 12(1): 24-29
    » Abstract

  • Job satisfaction and perceived job stress of the health professionals and the relationship between them [Turkish]
    Etem Erdal Erşan, Gülay Yıldırım, Orhan Doğan, Selma Doğan
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 115-121
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.34482

  • The effects of the service of community mental health center on the patients with schizophrenia - evaluation of quality of life, disabilities, general and social functioning- a summary of one year follow-up [Turkish]
    Hülya Ensari, Bülent Kadri Gültekin, Derya Karaman, Ayşegül Koç, Ali Fuat Beşkardeş
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 108-114
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36380

  • The relationship between smoking & alcohol use and internet addiction among the university students [Turkish]
    Hüseyin Alaçam, Figen Çulha Ateşçi, Abdullah Cem Şengül, Selim Tümkaya
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(6): 383-388
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.172340

  • The relationship between aggression and online video game addiction: a study on massively multiplayer online video game players [Turkish]
    H. Andaç Demirtaş Madran, Eda Ferligül Çakılcı
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(2): 99-107
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.39828

  • Self-stigmatization among patients with schizophrenia, their relatives and patients with major depressive disorder [Turkish]
    Mustafa Yıldız, Eylem Özten, Sibel Işık, İlker Özyıldırım, Deniz Karayün, Cem Cerit, Alp Üçok
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2012; 13(1): 1-7
    » Abstract

  • Most Cited Articles
  • Burnout, job satisfaction and depression in the healthcare personnel who work in the emergency department [Turkish]
    Cem Gökçen, Suat Zengin, Mehmet Murat Oktay, Gökay Alpak, Behçet Al, Cuma Yıldırım
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 122-128
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36379
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale among bariatric surgery patients [English]
    Güzin Mukaddes Sevinçer, Numan Konuk, Süleyman Bozkurt, Özge Saraçlı, Halil Coşkun
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(Supplement 1): 44-53
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.174345
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version among university students [Turkish]
    Cemal Onur Noyan, Aslı Enez Darçın, Serdar Nurmedov, Onat Yılmaz , Nesrin Dilbaz
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2015; 16(Supplement 1): 73-81
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.176101
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The Scale of Positive and Negative Experience: a validity and reliability study for adolescents [Turkish]
    Bülent Baki Telef
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 62-68
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36692
    Cited : 3 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Internet addiction in adolescence period: its relations with identity style and ruminative exploration [Turkish]
    Ümit Morsünbül
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(1): 77-83
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.43504
    Cited : 3 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Peripheral edema associated with mirtazapine: A case report [Turkish]
    Birmay Çam, Hüseyin Kurt
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(1): 84-86
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.35963
    Cited : 3 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The effects of the service of community mental health center on the patients with schizophrenia - evaluation of quality of life, disabilities, general and social functioning- a summary of one year follow-up [Turkish]
    Hülya Ensari, Bülent Kadri Gültekin, Derya Karaman, Ayşegül Koç, Ali Fuat Beşkardeş
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 108-114
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.36380
    Cited : 3 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Childhood trauma in recurrent and first episode depression [Turkish]
    Feridun Bülbül, Ülkü Çakır, Cuma Ülkü, İdris Üre, Onur Karabatak, Gökay Alpak
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2013; 14(2): 93-99
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.34484
    Cited : 3 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • An evaluation of the quality of life of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their families [English]
    Hasan Kandemir, Birim Günay Kılıç, Suat Ekinci, Murat Yüce
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(3): 265-271
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.46202
    Cited : 3 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Investigation of mindfulness and affecting factors of mindfulness among substance users and non users [Turkish]
    Kültegin Ögel, Nuray Sarp, Defne Tamar Gürol, Eda Ermağan
    Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2014; 15(4): 282-288
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/apd.169583
    Cited : 2 times [Click to see citing articles]