ISSN 1302-6631
 

Original Research 


Self-stigmatization among patients with schizophrenia, their relatives and patients with major depressive disorder

Mustafa Yıldız, Eylem Özten, Sibel Işık, İlker Özyıldırım, Deniz Karayün, Cem Cerit, Alp Üçok.

Abstract
Objective: The aims of this study were to assess stigma to others and self-stigma among outpatients with schizo-phrenia, their relatives, and patients with major depressive disorder and to examine the factors related to the stigmatization. Methods: Using the Self-Stigma Assessment Scale, 167 patients with schizophrenia, 45 relatives of the patients with schizophrenia and 86 patients with major depressive disorder were evaluated. The correlation between stigmatization to others and self-stigmatization and severity of illness, duration of illness, and demo-graphic characteristics were further examined for each group. Illness severity was evaluated using the clinical global impression scale. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between patients with schizo-phrenia and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with respect to stigmatization to others and self-stig-matization. Stigmatization to others was found to be higher in patients’ relatives. Although there were no corre-lation between stigmatization and demographic and clinical characteristics among patients with schizophrenia and their relatives, there was a positive correlation between severity of illness and stigmatization to others and self-stigmatization among patients with MDD. There was also a positive correlation between the level of education and self-stigmatization among patients with MDD. Conclusion: Disabling nature of the illness and negative public atti- tudes to the patients might be causative factors for self-stigmatization in schizophrenia. Clinicians should take the stigmatization to others and self-stigmatization which could be seen both patients and their relatives into con-sideration when treating patients with schizophrenia and their relatives in order to prevent negative consequences of the stigma.

Key words: stigma, self-stigma, schizophrenia, family members, major depressive disorder, patients



-stigmatization among patients with schizophrenia, their relatives and patients with major depressive disorder

Ozet
Amaç: Şizofreni hastalarında, şizofreni hastalarının ailelerinde ve majör depresif bozukluk (MDB) hastalarındaki başkalarını ve kendini damgalamayı değerlendirmek ve damgalama ile ilişkili etkenleri incelemektir. Yöntem: Kendini Damgalamayı Değerlendirme Ölçeği kullanılarak 167 şizofreni hastası, 86 MDB hastası ve 45 şizofreni hastasının yakınıyla görüşüldü. Başkalarını ve kendini damgalama ile hastalığın şiddeti, hastalığın süresi ve nüfus özellikleri arasındaki ilişkiler her grup için çözümlendi. Hastalık şiddeti Klinik Genel İzlenim Ölçeği ile değerlen-dirildi. Bulgular: Başkalarını damgalama ve kendini damgalama açısından şizofreni hastaları ile MDB hastaları arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı düzeyde fark saptandı. Şizofreni hastalarının ailelerinde başkalarını damgala-ma yüksek oranda saptandı. Şizofreni hastaları ve hasta yakınlarında kendini ve başkalarını damgalama puanları ile sosyodemografik, nüfus ve klinik özellikler arasında anlamlı bir ilişki saptanmazken, MDB hastalarında klinik durumun şiddeti ile başkalarını ve kendini damgalama puanları arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı bir ilişki saptandı. MDB hastalarında kendini damgalama ile eğitim düzeyi arasında pozitif bir ilişki saptandı. Tartışma: Şizofreninin yeti yitimiyle giden doğası ve olumsuz toplumsal tutumlar, şizofreni hastalarında kendini damgalamada nedensel bir rol oynayabilir. Damgalamanın olumsuz sonuçlarını önlemek için klinisyenler hastaları ve aileleri tedavi eder-ken hastalarda ve ailelerde de görülebilen başkalarını ve kendini damgalamayı dikkate almalıdır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Damgalama, kendini damgalama, şizofreni, aileler, majör depresif bozukluk, hastalar


 
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Pubmed Style

Yildiz M, Ozten E, Isik S, Ozyildirim I, Karayun D, Cerit C, Ucok A. [Self-stigmatization among patients with schizophrenia, their relatives and patients with major depressive disorder]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2012; 13(1): 1-7. Turkish.


Web Style

Yildiz M, Ozten E, Isik S, Ozyildirim I, Karayun D, Cerit C, Ucok A. [Self-stigmatization among patients with schizophrenia, their relatives and patients with major depressive disorder]. http://www.anadolupsikiyatri.net/?mno=16407 [Access: September 21, 2018]. Turkish.


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Yildiz M, Ozten E, Isik S, Ozyildirim I, Karayun D, Cerit C, Ucok A. [Self-stigmatization among patients with schizophrenia, their relatives and patients with major depressive disorder]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. 2012; 13(1): 1-7. Turkish.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Yildiz M, Ozten E, Isik S, Ozyildirim I, Karayun D, Cerit C, Ucok A. [Self-stigmatization among patients with schizophrenia, their relatives and patients with major depressive disorder]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg. (2012), [cited September 21, 2018]; 13(1): 1-7. Turkish.



Harvard Style

Yildiz, M., Ozten, E., Isik, S., Ozyildirim, I., Karayun, D., Cerit, C. & Ucok, A. (2012) [Self-stigmatization among patients with schizophrenia, their relatives and patients with major depressive disorder]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg, 13 (1), 1-7. Turkish.



Turabian Style

Yildiz, Mustafa, Eylem Ozten, Sibel Isik, Ilker Ozyildirim, Deniz Karayun, Cem Cerit, and Alp Ucok. 2012. [Self-stigmatization among patients with schizophrenia, their relatives and patients with major depressive disorder]. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 13 (1), 1-7. Turkish.



Chicago Style

Yildiz, Mustafa, Eylem Ozten, Sibel Isik, Ilker Ozyildirim, Deniz Karayun, Cem Cerit, and Alp Ucok. "[Self-stigmatization among patients with schizophrenia, their relatives and patients with major depressive disorder]." Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 13 (2012), 1-7. Turkish.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Yildiz, Mustafa, Eylem Ozten, Sibel Isik, Ilker Ozyildirim, Deniz Karayun, Cem Cerit, and Alp Ucok. "[Self-stigmatization among patients with schizophrenia, their relatives and patients with major depressive disorder]." Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 13.1 (2012), 1-7. Print.Turkish.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Yildiz, M., Ozten, E., Isik, S., Ozyildirim, I., Karayun, D., Cerit, C. & Ucok, A. (2012) [Self-stigmatization among patients with schizophrenia, their relatives and patients with major depressive disorder]. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 13 (1), 1-7. Turkish.





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